The Song dynasty followed the Five Kingdoms Period after the Tang Dynasty, starting from ~950 AD to ~1250 AD.
Technologically advanced, they were the first government in world history to issue bank notes. They were also the first to use gunpowder and a compass. Printing books was also common.
When Kublai Khan invaded China, The Song dynasty was pushed south and started being called the Southern Song dynasty, who reigned for 1279, when they were conquered by the Yuan dynasty.