India Pakistan war, 1965

This was the first major conflict between India and Pakistan since the 1947 war. Major people on the Indian side were Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and defence minister Y.B. Chavan.

Kutch conflict

Pakistani patrols began patrolling in territory controlled by India around the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat in January 1965, which was followed by attacks by both countries on each other’s posts on 8 April 1965. India had to withdraw some 40 miles. [1]

Operation Gibraltar

Pakistan tried to foment an insurrection in Kashmir [2], ideally leading either to a war or in international arbitration of the Kashmir issue.

On 5 August 1965 between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir. Indian forces, tipped off by the local populace, crossed the cease fire line on 15 August. Radio Pakistan announced that a popular uprising had broken out in the valley. In reality, the local population was mostly apathetic. [2]

Indian retaliation on West Punjab

Pakistani troops then crossed the ceasefire line in the Jammu sector, followed by a major offensive in Chhamb.

In order to relieve pressure, New Delhi ordered the army to open a new front. Indian troops crossed the Punjab border, heading straight for Lahore.


On 6 September, the United Nations Security Council met. The decision was made that in Punjab, the two sides had “fought themselves into a stalemate” [3]. On 22 Spetember, hostilities were called off.

  1. India After Gandhi, Ramachandra Guha, pg 394 

  2. India After Gandhi, Ramachandra Guha, pg 395  2

  3. India After Gandhi, Ramachandra Guha, pg 396 

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